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37.58.73.42 / 95.156.228.69 / 195.210.43.42, anyone?, (Thu, Sep 12th)

It started with a pretty benign question from an ISC reader. But if the corresponding SQL query times out on our sensors, something is probably indeed going on … The IP addresses listed above have >30'000 domain names associated to them, all of the format as shown below

byqajg2lclo7221tdx511xf21594e06d2bb1166c296c16adf1cbfe1b [ dot ] bizgo.be
byqajg2lclo7221tdx511xf21594e06d2d442d2a296c5ee5188fa2c0 [ dot ] bizgo.be
byqajg2lclo7221tdx511xf21594e06d2df74c3c296c49dd3801615d [ dot ] bizgo.be
byqajg2lclo7221tdx511xf40934e06d2ce119772967b2379df2211a [ dot ] bizgo.be

bizgo is not the only domain used, there are many, but currently concentrated in *.be. The host names seem to be time-based, and are only valid for the briefest of instants. This makes manual analysis somewhat difficult – by the time you have grabbed a sample and are running it in the sandbox, well, the domain name no longer resolves. Consequently, only a handful of malware reports on VirusTotal and Malwr.com so far actually show a real detection, for example

https://malwr.com/analysis/NmQ5NmYwN2EyMTQzNDY3Zjk3MjY0MTRhOTQzMjE2Mjc/
https://malwr.com/analysis/NWFiMGYxY2E1MzVhNDkxOGIxNDAzNTQ4ODNkODU5ZjQ/

and both suggest that a Trojan Downloader is coming from this IP, but otherwise didn't get all that far with the analysis. For the traffic that a sensor of ours captured, the requested file path was /i/last/index.php, which matches Emerging Threat SID 2015475 for a Blackhole landing page.

If you have intel to share on these domains or IPs, please let us know via the contact form, or the comments below.

 

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In Defense of Biometrics, (Wed, Sep 11th)

There is a new iPhone and it comes with a finger print sensor! What better reason to talk a bit about biometric. In the good old days before Defcon and Wardriving, Biometrics had an ambiance of "high security". Remember the James Bond movie where they cut out a guy's eye to bypass a retina scanner? Those days are long gone. Now we have seen fingerprint and facial recognition systems being bypassed by simple printouts of the fingerprint or face, or rubber molds of fingerprints being used instead of the real thing.

So how meaningful is a fingerprint sensor these days? The right answer is of course: It depends. First on the quality of the sensor, secondly of the software used to analyze the acquired data, and finally the alternative authentication methods it replaces or suplements.

During enrollment, the sensor acquires a reference image of the fingerprint. This image is then analyzed, and certain parameters are extracted from the image. It is these parameters, not the original image, that will be used to compare later authentication attempts. Of course, no two images are quite alike. It may not be possible to identify all the parameters, or some additional characteristics may be discovered that were not visible in the reference scan. The result is that the software has to allow for some variability. For low quality sensors, this variability can be quite large, leaving you with only few distinct features. The result is the same as having a bad password: Many different users will end up with the same "fingerprint" as far as the sensor is concerned.

So what does this mean for the iPhone, or mobile device authentication in general? The problem with mobile device authentication has always been the fact that it is difficult for the user to enter complex passwords on a small keyboard. The result is that most users choose short numeric PINs. There have been a couple of other attempts, for example the Android "pattern" login and the use of cameras for facial recognition. The facial recognition usually suffers from bad sensor quality and from very variable lighting. The pattern login is a pretty neat idea, but I think it hasn't been tested sufficiently to figure out how much patterns users choose actually differ.

There is one thing Apple appears to have done right: The fingerprint data stays on the phone, and is not backed up to any cloud service. If this information got lost, an attacker could use it to reconstruct a duplicate of the finger, which in turn could be used for biometric identification even beyond the iPhone itself. 

As far as the quality of the image sensor and software: We will have to wait for it to be tested once the phone is released. It probably does not include more advanced feat rues like measuring the users body temperature or observing blood flow. But I hope it will be better then a 4 digit pin.

One easy improvement: Make it "real two factor" by allowing users to require a PIN/Password in addition to the fingerprint. Could they have done better then a fingerprint? There are a few different common biometric sensors: Facial recognition, Fingerprint, Weight/Height, retina scans and iris scans. Fingerprints are probably best considering the price of the sensor and the difficulty to acquire the data.

Finally: There is probably one real big vulnerability here. A stolen iPhone is likely covered in the user's fingerprints. It shouldn't be too hard for an attacker to lift a finger print off the phone itself to bypass the sensor.

 

——
Johannes B. Ullrich, Ph.D.
SANS Technology Institute
Twitter

(c) SANS Internet Storm Center. http://isc.sans.edu Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 United States License.

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Reboot Wednesday: Yesterday's Patch Tuesday Aftermath, (Wed, Sep 11th)

We have a couple of issues people reported with yesterday's Microsoft patches. Let us know if you experienced any of these issues, and what workaround you applied to get things back to normal:

KB2868116: Takes very long to install. Just sit back and wait (30-45 Minutes). This patch improves the content of warning messages, so it is somewhat security relevant, but does not patch an actual vulnerability.

KB2817630: Causes Outlook to loose all folders. No workaround other then removing the patch. This was not a security patch.

We will add to this list as we confirm any other issues. So far, there are some reports of the system re-applying the same patch over and over, but there are just one or two users reporting this, and in some cases the patch that causes it isn't identified.

 

——

Johannes B. Ullrich, Ph.D.
SANS Technology Institute
Twitter

(c) SANS Internet Storm Center. http://isc.sans.edu Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 United States License.

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Getting Started with Rsyslog Filters, (Wed, Sep 11th)

 

This is a "guest diary" submitted by Tom Webb. We will gladly forward any responses or please use our comment/forum section to comment publically. Tom is currently enrolled in the SANS Masters Program.

Rsyslog has some very useful features when building a centralized syslog system. If you are not currently centralizing your logs or have not organized them in an efferent way for analysis, this post will get you started in the right direction.  

To understand how to create a filter, you must understand the basic breakdown of the message format. Below is a visual representation of a basic log. The rawmsg is the entire syslog line. If you use this in your filter, it will check the entire line for a match. The hostname field can match a name or an IP address. The programname field normally lists the application that created the log and the msg field is anything after the programname. 

|-------------------------------------rawmsg--------------------------------------|

|-----Date-----|-----Hostname----|programname|-----------------msg----------------|  

Aug 14 02:38:01  SIFT-Workstation  rsyslogd:      rsyslogd's userid changed to 101

 

Client logs

To setup all logs for a Linux system to forward to your central log server simply change the /etc/rsyslog.conf file and replace the IP address of your syslog server with (192.168.1.1) in following line:

*.* @192.168.1.1:514

If you only want to forward a type of application logs to syslog, be more specific about what you want to send. If you do not need all the information in a log, filter out the noise. This will save disk space and speed up processing. In this example, we are only sending apache logs to the server. 

If $programname contains ‘apache’ then @192.168.1.1:514

To send the logs via UDP use one ‘@’ sign and to send the logs via TCP use two ‘@@’ signs.

If $progrmname contains ‘apache’ then @@192.168.1.1:514

Organizing Logs

Once you have several devices reporting to your syslog server, you will need to break the logs into different files to make analysis easier. Most often, you will want to group logs by application. Some of the common operators for filtering are contains, isequal, and startswith.

If you want rsyslog to stop process the line once you have a match, use & ~ on the next line. This prevents the line from being entered into multiple files (e.g. /var/log/my-log and /var/log/syslog).

To place all logs from one IP address into a single log, use the below example. It takes anything from the IP 10.10.41.12 and adds it to the /var/log/mail.log. 

if $fromhost-ip == '10.10.41.12' then /var/log/mail.log

&~

For devices in a cluster, you will likely want both device logs in the same file. In the following example both IP 10.10.10.3 and 10.10.10.4 logs are placed into the /var/log/firewall.log. 

if ($fromhost-ip == '10.10.10.3' or  $fromhost-ip == '10.10.10.4') 

Use a partial IP match for lots of devices on a couple of subnets. In this example, anything that has a 10.20.0 address or 10.30.0 is placed into /var/log/load-balance.log. Rsyslog cannot use CIDR notation for subnets, but in most cases, this is a decent replacement.

if ($hostname contains '10.20.0' or $hostname contains '10.30.0') then/var/log/load.log

To create a log for all authentications, the rule below will take any message that contains ‘auth’ and place it into the /var/log/remote-auth.log file.

if $msg contains 'auth' then /var/log/remote-auth.log

A more complex filter to match both authentications and the word fail, use the below example.

If $msg contains ‘auth’ and $msg contains ‘fail’ then /var/log/remote-fail.log

Rsyslogs support very complex logic and syntax. For more information, visit the following links.

http://www.rsyslog.com/doc/rsyslog_conf_filter.html

http://www.rsyslog.com/doc/property_replacer.html

Tom Webb

 

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More Black Tuesday workload, (Tue, Sep 10th)

It's going to be a busy reboot Wednesday it seems:

  • Wireshark 1.8.10 and 1.10.2 have been released today
  • Java 7u40 has been released today
    Thanks Neil for reporting it the first to us.


Swa Frantzen

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Macs need to patch too!, (Tue, Sep 10th)

Our regular readers know this, but on Patch Tuesday aka Black Tuesday we get a bit wider audience and hence it's worth repeating it even more:

Do not forget to also patch your Macs!

E.g. a Trojan was recently discoverd that targets Macs with unpatched java flaws. See the Intego writeup.
Not only that.  Microsft Office, Adobe Flash, shockwave, reader or acrobat all need to get update too.


Swa Frantzen — Section 66

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Microsoft September 2013 Black Tuesday Overview, (Tue, Sep 10th)

Overview of the September 2013 Microsoft patches and their status.

# Affected Contra Indications – KB Known Exploits Microsoft rating(**) ISC rating(*)
clients servers
MS13-067 A multitude of vulnerabilities in sharepoint (Office Server) have been fixed. It could lead to a Denial of Service over privilege escalation  to random code execution with the rights of the W3WP service account.
CVE-2013-1315 is also mentioned in MS13-073.
CVE-2013-3847, CVE-2013-3848, CVE-2013-3849, CVE-2013-3857 and CVE-2013-3858 are also mentioned in MS13-072.
Also contains functional changes for Visio Services.
Sharepoint

CVE-2013-0081
CVE-2013-1315
CVE-2013-1330
CVE-2013-3179
CVE-2013-3180
CVE-2013-3847
CVE-2013-3848
CVE-2013-3849
CVE-2013-3857
CVE-2013-3858

KB 2834052 CVE-2013-3180 was publicly disclosed. Severity:Critical
Exploitability:1
NA Critical
MS13-068 A input validation error dealign with S/MIME messages leads to random code execution with the rights of the logged on user. The vulnerability can be triggered by merely viewing or previewing a message.
Outlook

CVE-2013-3870

KB 2756473 No publicly known exploits Severity:Critical
Exploitability:2
Critical Important
MS13-069 A set of 10 new memory corruption vulnerabilities in this monthly instance of the cumulative MSIE patch. They lead to random code execution withthe rights of the logged on user.
MSIE

CVE-2013-3201
CVE-2013-3202
CVE-2013-3203
CVE-2013-3204
CVE-2013-3205
CVE-2013-3206
CVE-2013-3207
CVE-2013-3208
CVE-2013-3209
CVE-2013-3245

KB 2870699 No publicly known exploits Severity:Critical
Exploitability:1
Critical Important
MS13-070 A memory handling error in OLE allows for random code execution with the rights of the logged on user.
OLE

CVE-2013-3863

KB 2876217 No publicly known exploits Severity:Critical
Exploitability:1
Critical Important
MS13-071

A vulnerability in handling the theme files allows for random code execution with the rights of the logged on user.

Theme

CVE-2013-0810

KB 2864063 No publicly known exploits Severity:Important
Exploitability:1
Critical Important
MS13-072 Multiple vulnerabilities allow information leaks and random code execution with the rights of the logged on user.
CVE-2013-3847, CVE-2013-3848, CVE-2013-3849, CVE-2013-3857 and CVE-2013-3858 are also mentioned in MS13-067.
Office

CVE-2013-3160
CVE-2013-3847
CVE-2013-3848
CVE-2013-3849
CVE-2013-3850
CVE-2013-3851
CVE-2013-3852
CVE-2013-3853
CVE-2013-3854
CVE-2013-3855
CVE-2013-3856
CVE-2013-3857
CVE-2013-3858

KB 2845537 No publicly known exploits Severity:Important
Exploitability:1
Critical Important
MS13-073 Multiple vulnerabilities in Excel allow for information leak and random code execution with the rights of the logged on user.
CVE-2013-1315 is also mentioned in MS13-067.
Excel 

CVE-2013-1315
CVE-2013-3158
CVE-2013-3159

KB 2858300 No publicly known exploits Severity:Important
Exploitability:3
Critical Important
MS13-074 Multiple vulnerabilities allow random code execution with the rights of the logged on user.
Access

CVE-2013-3155
CVE-2013-3156
CVE-2013-3157

KB 2848637 No publicly known exploits Severity:Important
Exploitability:1
Critical Important
MS13-075 Pinyn Input Method Editor (IME) for Simplified Chinese allows for a privilege escalation by the user to local system. 
Office IME (Chinese)

CVE-2013-3859

KB 2878687 No publicly known exploits Severity:Important
Exploitability:1
Important Less urgent
MS13-076 Multiple memory corruption vulnerabilities allow privilege escalation. 
Kernel Mode Drivers

CVE-2013-1341
CVE-2013-1342
CVE-2013-1343
CVE-2013-1344
CVE-2013-3864
CVE-2013-3865
CVE-2013-3866

KB 2876315 No publicly known exploits Severity:Important
Exploitability:1
Important Less urgent
MS13-077 A double free vulnerability in the Service Control manager (SCM) allows privilege escalation.
Service Control Manager

CVE-2013-3862

KB 2872339 No publicly known exploits Severity:Important
Exploitability:2
Important Less Urgent
MS13-078

An information leak vulnerability in Frontpage while handling the DTD of an XML file.

Frontpage

CVE-2013-3137

KB 2825621 No publicly known exploits Severity:Important
Exploitability:3
Important Less Urgent
MS13-079 A Denial of Service vulnerability in Active Directory by a query to the LDAP service. Lasts till an administroator restarts the service.
Active Directory

CVE-2013-3868

KB 2853587 No publicly known exploits Severity:Important
Exploitability:3
NA Important
We will update issues on this page for about a week or so as they evolve.
We appreciate updates
US based customers can call Microsoft for free patch related support on 1-866-PCSAFETY
(*): ISC rating

  • We use 4 levels:

    • PATCH NOW: Typically used where we see immediate danger of exploitation. Typical environments will want to deploy these patches ASAP. Workarounds are typically not accepted by users or are not possible. This rating is often used when typical deployments make it vulnerable and exploits are being used or easy to obtain or make.
    • Critical: Anything that needs little to become "interesting" for the dark side. Best approach is to test and deploy ASAP. Workarounds can give more time to test.
    • Important: Things where more testing and other measures can help.
    • Less Urgent: Typically we expect the impact if left unpatched to be not that big a deal in the short term. Do not forget them however.
  • The difference between the client and server rating is based on how you use the affected machine. We take into account the typical client and server deployment in the usage of the machine and the common measures people typically have in place already. Measures we presume are simple best practices for servers such as not using outlook, MSIE, word etc. to do traditional office or leisure work.
  • The rating is not a risk analysis as such. It is a rating of importance of the vulnerability and the perceived or even predicted threat for affected systems. The rating does not account for the number of affected systems there are. It is for an affected system in a typical worst-case role.
  • Only the organization itself is in a position to do a full risk analysis involving the presence (or lack of) affected systems, the actually implemented measures, the impact on their operation and the value of the assets involved.
  • All patches released by a vendor are important enough to have a close look if you use the affected systems. There is little incentive for vendors to publicize patches that do not have some form of risk to them.

(**): The exploitability rating we show is the worst of them all due to the too large number of ratings Microsoft assigns to some of the patches.


Swa Frantzen

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